Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion

Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion

Overview

When the fetal red blood cells are being destroyed by Rh antibodies, an intrauterine transfusion is given to the Rh-positive fetus.

The Rh-sensitized mother’s immune system is destroying the fetus’s red blood cells, therefore a blood transfusion is provided to replace them. Until the fetus is old enough to be delivered, this therapy will keep it healthy.

When a fetus is stillborn, blood may be transfused through the umbilical cord or umbilical artery. In comparison to transfusion via the abdomen, umbilical cord vascular transfusion has a greater survival rate and allows for better absorption of blood.

The hospital performs an intrauterine fetal blood transfusion. There is a chance the mother may be required to remain overnight after the surgery.

  • To get an accurate picture of the fetus’s and placenta’s positions, anesthesia is used on the mother.
  • It is necessary to numb the mother’s abdomen before inserting the transfusion needle after it has been cleansed with an antiseptic solution.
  • To put a halt to fetal movement temporarily, the medicine may be administered to the fetus.
  • When a needle is inserted into a vein in the umbilical cord or the abdomen of the fetus, it is guided by ultrasound.
  • The umbilical cord blood artery of the fetus is infused with the blood of a suitable type (often type O, Rh-negative).
  • Antibiotics are often administered to the mother to prevent her from becoming infected. However, this is rare, she may also be given a tocolytic medication to prevent labor from starting.

Everything You Need to Know About Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion

What to Expect | Why It Is Done | How Well It Works | Risks | Success Rate

What to Expect

Short periods of recuperation time (between 1 and 3 hours) are needed to let the mother’s sedatives wear off completely. Depending on whether the fetus was given medicine to inhibit movement, it may take many hours before the mother feels the baby moving again.

Related Conditions

Why It Is Done

A blood transfusion given to a pregnant woman who has Rh sensitized may be necessary if her immune system is attacking her baby’s red blood cells (Rh disease). These types of transfusions are performed when the following conditions are met:

  • Anemia is suspected by Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery.
  • Amniocentesis bilirubin results indicate that Rh sensitization has had a moderate to severe impact on the fetus.
  • Fetal hydrops may be seen on ultrasound as enlarged organs and tissues. Ultrasounds can detect this condition in the womb.
  • There is severe anemia in the fetus, according to the results of fetal blood sampling (FBS). The transfusion may be carried out immediately.

There are 1–4 transfusions every 1–4 weeks until the severely affected fetus can be safely delivered.

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12+ Years of Experience as
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How Well It Works

For the baby to live after the transfusion, the severity of the mother’s sickness, the technique of transfusion, as well as the doctor’s competence, must all be taken into account. It has been found that when the umbilical cord is severed after an intrauterine transfusion, the following outcomes occur:

  • Fetuses without hydrops have a higher survival rate, at nearly nine out of ten.
  • Hydrops affects about 75% of pregnancies, but most babies make it.

Risks

Transfusions within the womb have the potential to lead to:

  • Infection of the uterus
  • Infection of the unborn child
  • Premature birth
  • Over bleeding, fetal blood in the mother’s urine, and mixing of the two
  • The uterus is leaking amniotic fluid
  • Fetal death

 

Success Rate

By using this technique, the chance of a fetus dying from hemolytic anemia drops from 50% to 5-9% of all fetus fatalities.

What if the procedure is not performed?

If left untreated, severe anemia in a fetus may result in its death.

Alternatives

Please talk to your doctor about the best course of action.

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Dr. Ramit Raosaheb Kamate

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Dr. Ramit Kamate is a Reproductive Medicine Consultant and Sexologist with experience of 12+ years. He specialises in Sexual Medicine for male and female, Fertility Treatment, Pre and Post Delivery Care, Normal Vaginal Delivery (NVD), Tubectomy/Tubal Ligation, Natural Cycle IVF, MTP.

Dr. Ramit Kamate finished MBBS from B J Medical College, Pune. He pursued Masters’s In Reproductive Medicine from Hamilton University, UK & IBCME Dubai. Completed Fellowship in Cosmetic Gynaecology and Sexual Medicine from USA.

Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion

by | Oct 20, 2021

Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion

by | Oct 20, 2021

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